Controversies and advances in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) analgesia in chronic pain management

Chronic pain can lead to significant disability with social and economic implications in the community. Traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been part of the management of chronic pain. The risk of adverse events with traditional NSAIDs has led to the development of alternative therapeutic options. Differential blockade of the enzymes involved in pain and inflammation can offer therapeutic options without the gastrointestinal side effects. However, this may be at the expense of other major cardiovascular side effects. Pain pathways that involve peripheral transmission may be altered by local application of analgesia to the skin overlying the painful area. Recent guidelines for osteoarthritis treatment from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence...